Throughout American history, military mobilization has had lasting effects on communities. The term mobilization is used to describe the process of assembling and organizing soldiers and supplies for times of war or national emergency.
The degree of mobilization required depends on the extent of the conflict. In modern total wars, mobilization has led to conscription of soldiers, war bonds, rationing, conversion of industries to military manufacturing, and increased government regulation of the economy.
Tri-Village first experienced the impact of military mobilization in 1916, as the fledgling area of Upper Arlington was taken over by the Ohio National Guard. This mobilization effort was part President Wilson’s Punitive Expedition, a response to Francisco “Pancho” Villa’s raid of New Mexico.
Mobilized to defend the U.S. and Mexican border, the National Guard established Camp Willis in Upper Arlington as a training camp. More than 7,000 soldiers mustered at Camp Willis. Residents who had already moved into Upper Arlington were subject to military security and had to have passes to go anywhere. Although the National Guard only occupied the land for three months, it stopped land sales and destroyed much of the infrastructure the Thompson Brothers had established.
On a much larger scale, military mobilization in World War II impacted nearly every American community, including the Tri-Village area. World War II was disruptive for millions of American families.
A peacetime draft was instituted in 1940 to supplement military enlistments. Nearly 18 million soldiers served in the war, with 39 percent volunteers and 61 percent draftees.
On the home front, families experienced crowded housing conditions and rationing of consumers goods. Many Grandview residents volunteered for military service in World War II. Women went to work in agencies supporting the war effort. Children conducted scrap drives to reallocate materials for war goods. Victory gardens were established at Goodale and Grandview Avenue.
Ohio’s Learning Standards: Social Studies
Content Statement 8. Communities may include diverse cultural groups.
Content Statement 16. Cultural biases, stereotypes and prejudices had social, political and economic consequences for minority groups and the population as a whole.
High School American History
Content Statement 12. Immigration, internal migration and urbanization transformed American life.
Content Statement 17. Racial intolerance, anti-immigrant attitudes and the Red Scare contributed to social unrest after World War I.
Explain how industrial job opportunities contributed to immigration and migration.
Discuss the contributions of Italians and other minority groups to the culture and economy of the Tri-Village area.
Describe the practices of racial discrimination against minority groups in Tri-Village and how these practices reflected broader patterns in American history.
1. What employment opportunities were available for minority groups in the Tri-Village area?
2. What impact did Italian immigrants have on the culture and economy of the Tri-Village area? How did they integrate and assimilate into the community? What influence remains today?
3. What biases, stereotypes or prejudice toward Italian immigrants were evident in Tri-Village? How did this change over time? What consequences did these feelings have on the larger community?
4. How was the treatment of minority groups in Sellsville different from other Tri-Village communities?
5. What practices of racial discrimination were used against minority groups in Tri-Village? How did these practices reflect broader patterns of treatment of immigrants and African Americans in the United States?
6. What factors contributed to the decline of discrimination and growing diversity of Tri-Village communities?
Have students look for evidence of the impact of various cultural groups on the city of Columbus. This can include the names of neighborhoods, churches, restaurants, etc. Students can create a multimedia presentation with examples.
Have students research and write about practices of racial discrimination in northern cities, including red-lining and restrictive covenants. Students should include information about the Shelley v. Kraemer Supreme Court decision and to what extent it impacted integration of neighborhoods.